A Nephrologist is a physician who specializes in kidney care and treatment. The term nephrologist comes from the Greek word “nephros”, which means kidney, and “ologist” refers to someone who studies. Nephrologists are also called kidney doctors. Nephrologists, following medical school training, are educated in Internal Medicine and then undergo more training to specialize in treating patients with kidney diseases. They commonly treat chronic kidney disease, acute kidney injury or failure, high blood pressure, kidney stones, end stage kidney disease including different forms of dialysis and transplantation.